Dr Rachel Codd
BSc(Hons. I)(USyd), PhD(USyd), MRACI, CChem
Position: Lecturer in Chemistry
Affiliation: Centre for Heavy Metals Research, School of Chemistry, University of Sydney
Centre for Heavy Metals Research
School of Chemistry
The University of Sydney NSW 2006
Phone: +61 (2) 4620 3218
Fax: +61 (2) 4620 3025
Dr Codd has broad research expertise in bioinorganic chemistry with particular focus upon, metalloprotein purification, EPR spectroscopy for the deconvolution of complex metal-bioligand speciation profiles and equilibria, chemical synthesis and molecular mechanics calculations.
Sialic acids are a family of acidic N-acetylated carbohydrates that terminate cell-bound glycoproteins in both animals and humans and play critical roles in cell recognition and adhesion phenomena. The most common sialic acid in humans, N-acetylneuraminic acid, has received much attention in the last decade, since this molecule served as the model for the development of the anti-flu drug, Relenza. While the organic chemistry of N-acetylneuraminic acid is under continual research, there are few studies that examine metal-N-acetylneuraminic acid speciation and the implications that these species have on cell integrity. Our group has demonstrated that stable complexes form between transition metal ions and N-acetylneuraminic acid. This research program is currently being expanded to examine the types of species formed between N-acetylneuraminic acid and transition metal ions found in serum, (eg; Cu, Fe) and the effects that these complexes have upon cell integrity and/or metal translocation phenomena. Most recently, we have used two-dimensional analysis of EPR spectroscopic data and molecular mechanics calculations to determine the speciation profile of Cu(II) and sialic acid complexes under physiologically relevant conditions.
Biomolecules from Cold-Adapted Bacteria
We are studying small-molecule metal chelates produced by microorganisms that optimally reside under hypothermophilic (more commonly known as ‘psychrophilic’; ‘psychro’ is Greek for ‘cold’) conditions, such as those found in the Antarctic. We are initiating studies of cold-adapted siderophores to ascertain whether cold-adapted organisms produce a ‘super-siderophore’ in response to extremely low iron concentrations present in sea water at low temperature. These molecules may have medicinal significance with respect to metal chelation therapies for patients with b-thalassemia.
- X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopic Studies of Cr(V/IV/III) 2-Ethyl-2-hydroxybutanoato(2–/1–) Complexes. Levina, A.; Codd, R.; Foran, G. J.; Hambley, T. W.; Maschmeyer, T.; Masters, A. F.; Lay, P. A. in press (Inorg. Chem.)
- Book Chapter ‘Biomolecules from Extremophilic Life’ Codd, R. of ‘From Zero to Infinity’ (Science Foundation for Physics, University of Sydney) 2003.
- Oxochromium(V) species formed with 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic or N-acetylneuraminic (sialic) acids. An in vitro model system of oxochromium(V) species potentially stabilised in the respiratory tract upon inhalation of carcinogenic chromium(VI) compounds. Codd, R.; Lay, P. A. Chem. Res. Toxicol. 2003, 7, 881-892.
- Sialoglycoprotein and Carbohydrate Complexes in Chromium Toxicity. Codd, R.; Irwin, J. A.; Lay, P. A. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2003, 7, 213-219.
- Chromium in Biology: Toxicology and Nutritional Aspects. Levina, A.; Codd, R.; Dillon, C. T.; Lay, P. A. Prog. Inorg. Chem. 2003, 51, 145-250.
- A potential synthon for models of vanadium haloperoxidase: (3,5-dimethylpyrazole)bis[2-hydroxy-2-methylbutanoato(1–)]oxovanadium(IV). Raishbrook, S. L.; Turner, P.; Codd, R. Acta Cryst. 2002, E58, m737-m739.
- Pulsed ELDOR spectroscopy of the Mo(V)/Fe(III) state of sulfite oxidase prepared by one-electron reduction with Ti(III) citrate. Codd, R.; Astashkin, A. V.; Pacheco, A.; Raitsimring, A. M.; Enemark, J. H. JBIC, J. Biol. Inorg. Chem. 2002, 7, 338-350.
- Chromium(V)–Sialic (Neuraminic) Acid Species are Formed from Mixtures of Chromium(VI) and Saliva. Codd, R.; Lay, P. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 11799-11800.
- Studies on the Genotoxicity of Chromium: From the Test Tube to the Cell. Codd, R.; Dillon, C. T.; Levina, A.; Lay, P. A. Coord. Chem. Rev. 2001, 216, 537-582.
- Characterization and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Studies of Bis[quinato(2–)]oxochromate(V). Codd, R.; Levina, A.; Zhang, L.; Hambley, T. W.; Lay, P. A. Inorg. Chem. 2000, 39, 990-997.
- Competition between 1,2-Diol and 2-Hydroxy Acid Coordination in Cr(V)-Quinic Acid Complexes: Implications for Stabilization of Cr(V) Intermediates of Relevance to Cr(VI)-Induced Carcinogenesis. Codd, R.; Lay, P. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 7864-7876.
- Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Facility: multifrequency, variable temperature and continuous wave and pulsed capabilities
- Biological Chemistry Laboratory: HPLC, cryogenic storage, refrigerated centrifuge
Prof A. Rockenbauer (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungary)
Dr T. Szabó-Plánka (University of Szeged, Hungary)